Practical aspects of wine corkage

Franco France 46,00 € Franco tous pays 59,00 €
OU
Auteur(s) Jean Michel Riboulet et Christian Alegoet
Nb pages 282
Année d'édition Non
Langue(s) Anglais
Autres versions disponibles Français, Espagnol, Italien
Récompenses Prix OIV 1987

160

PREFACE

The contribution of œnology to the current quality of wine is indisputable, permitting a perfect expression of natural factors linked to the earth, to the vineyard site, to the growth and grape variety, and to the vintage year.
It was natural therefore, that œnological research should look more closely at the various phenomena which come into play both upstream and downstream.
Essentially, winemakers have at their disposal the means of realising the potential quality of the harvest, and their success depends on their particular attention to all of these.
But it is also important that the quality realised by the vinification and the cellaring of the wine is not compromised at the time of packaging. The preparation of wines for packaging, and the practical aspects of bottling justify special attention.
Among these operations, corking is an essential step, on the one hand because the sealing of the wine influences its ultimate development during ageing, and on the other because sealing, using cork closures, is utilised for virtually all the greatest wines.
This is achieved by the use of a material remarkable for its elastic properties and its ability to seal, but its choice, its preparation and its use required certain precautions to avoid problems.
Taking account of this essentials, the importance of which is recognized more and more, the « Institut d’OEnologie de Bordeaux » has for some years now engaged a team of research workers which, under the direction of Doctor André Lefebvre, has addressed these questions.
Thus it was that Jean-Michel Riboulet joined the team in 1979, to make a personal study which culminated in 1982 with a doctoral thesis for his third level of oenology, entitled « A Contribution to the Study, Chemical and Microbiological, of the Cork Taint of Wines ». He has certainly succeeded in producing one of the most original and well documented studies on this subject.
Following this, Jean-Michel Riboulet has become responsible for technical matters with a company well known in the cork trade, where he has been able to hone his knowledge of the different aspects of corkage, and at the same time master all the other techniques employed in the corking of wine bottles.
But of course, the condition of corkage and its efficiency are also a function of the type of bottle being used. This area is handled by a technical director in one of the very big glass works, Christian Alegoet, whose skills are well known. The collaboration of these two specialists in these two complementary fields has enabled a complete coverage of the subject.
This work will be of great value to technicians, for it brings together all the practical problems which will be encountered. In every circumstance solutions are suggested, and one always has the feeling that these are the fruits of the author’s personal experience. Above all, it is a work unique of its type, as there is nothing else as complete in the French language ; For this reason one can readily forgive the very few inaccuracies. An other merit of this book is its emphasis on the necessity of further research into he corkage of wine in order that techniques can be improved and refined.

Professeur P. RIBEREAU-GAYON
Correspondant de l’Académie des Sciences
Directeur de l’Institut d’Œnologie
de l’Université de Bordeaux II

CONTENT

Introduction

Chapter I - Glass and the bottle

  • 1. General
  • 2. History
  • 3. The bottle
  • 4. The evolution of forms
  • 5. The elaboration of glass
    • 5.1. A definition of glass
    • 5.2. The raw material
    • 5.3. The colour
    • 5.4. Fusion
  • 6. Moulding
    • 6.1. The types of machines
    • 6.2. The moulds
  • 7. From manufacturing to the palletts
    • 7.1. Stabilisation or refiring
    • 7.2. Surface treatment
    • 7.3. The controls
    • 7.4. Packing
  • 8. The ring
    • 8.1. Overview
    • 8.2. - Notions of tolerances
    • 8.3. - Definition and tolerances of interior diameters of finishes and necks
      • • Bore dimensions
      • • Entrance bore
      • • Through bore
    • 8.4. - The types of finishes
    • 8.5. - Plain cork finishes
      • • Generalities
      • • Plain cork finish cetie
      • • The beginning of a finish
      • • Characteristics of the cetie finish
      • • The porto finish
      • • The finish for pommel
    • 8.6. - Cork finishes
      • • For flat wines
      • • For sparkling wines
      • • The cider-sparkling wine cork finish
      • • The champagne cork finish
    • 8.7. String finishes
    • 8.8. Crown finish
      • • Crown finish : sparkling wine and cider of 29
      • • Crown finish 29 champenoise
    • 8.9. Thread finishes for flat drinks
    • 8.10. Mixed finishes
    • 8.11. Other finishes

Chapter II - Cork and the cork

  • 1. Cork
    • 1.1. Cork oak
    • 1.2. Cytology and histology of cork
    • 1.3. The chemical constitution of cork
    • 1.4. The physical properties of cork
    • 1.5. Cork faults
  • 2. The bottle cork
    • 2.1. The harvesting of cork and plank treatment
    • 2.2. Cork manufacturing
      • • Band cutting
      • • Tubing
      • • The cleaning
      • • The sorting
      • • The filling
      • • The bevelling
      • • Agglomerated cork
      • • Champagne cork
      • • Marking the corks
      • • Surface treatment of corks
      • • Cork packaging - « sterile corks »
      • • Cork controls
      • • Recent developments
      • • Which cork for which wine ?
      • • Future of cork in corkage for wine.

Chapter III - Natural cork corkage machine

  • 1. Overview
  • 2. The hoper
    • • Feeding of corking machines
  • 3. Mounting mechanisms and bottle position
  • 4. The corkage head
    • 4.1. Lateral compression corking machines
    • 4.2. Rolled compression corking machines
    • 4.3. Triple compression corking machines
    • 4.4. Quadruple compression corking machines
    • 4.5. Other compressions systems
  • 5. The heating of the corker
  • 6. The injection of co2 - corking under vacuum
  • 7. The choice of the corking machine
  • 8. The maintenance of natural cork corking machines

Chapter IV - Corkage operations

  • 1. The control. Of bottle reception
  • 2. The control of cork reception
    • 2.1. Verification of the deliver y aspect
    • 2.2. Dimensional control
    • 2.3. The measurment of humidity
    • 2.4. Mechanical control
    • 2.5. Surface treatment controls for corks
    • 2.6. Control of cork dust removal
    • 2.7. Other controls
    • 2.8. The microbiologic al control of corks
    • 2.9. The control of agglomerated corks
    • 2.10. The control of champagne cork
  • 3. Level of bottle filling
    • 3.1. The determination of level of bottling
    • 3.2. Corkage to the rim or « till it spurts »
    • 3.3. The expansion of wine under the effect of temperature
  • 4. Placing the cork
    • 4.1. The compression of the cork
    • 4.2. The driving of the cork
    • 4.3. The placement of a cork in a damp bottle neck
    • 4.4. The depth to which the cork is plunged
    • 4.5. Interior pression of bottle
    • 4.6. The laying down of the bottles
    • 4.7. Corkage with co2
    • 4.8. Vacuum corkage
    • 4.9. The aging of the cork
  • 5. The use of the champagne cork
  • 6. Corking with plastic
  • 7. The synthetic cork
  • 8. Corks with a head
  • 9. Post corkage controls («patent » corks)
  • 10. The storage and transport of bottled wines

Chapter V - Capsulling and metallic screw capping

  • 1. The outer covering
    • 1.1. Outer covering capsules
    • 1.2. Capsules distributors
    • 1.3. The capsuling machines
  • 2. Screw caps
    • 2.1. Screw caps
    • 2.2. The placement of screw caps
    • 2.3. Requirements for screw caps
    • 2.4. The corrosion and durability of screw caps
    • 2.5. Gaskets (sealing disks)
    • 2.6. The image of the screw cap for consumers
  • 3. Crown seals
  • 4. The setting proportions of different types of capsules
    • 4.1. Manufactoring : comptoir commercial champenois
    • 4.2. Manufactoring : emballage couronnes s.A.
    • 4.3. Manufactoring : optima

Chapter VI - Technical difficulties of corkage

  • 1. Dust - the « voltigeurs »
  • 2. Difficulties with cork extraction
  • 3. Driving of the cork
  • 4. Rotation of the cork
  • 5. Remounting of the cork
  • 6. Sealing faults
  • 7. About the cork
  • 8. Protein haze
  • 9. The presence of an oily surface layer in bottles
  • 10. Organoleptic changes to wine attributed to the cork
    • 10.1. The state of research on the « corked taste »
    • 10.2. The true « corked taste »
    • 10.3. Mould taste
    • 10.4. Relation between leakage and « corked taste »
    • 10.5. The taste of cork
    • 10.6. The possible role of trichloroaniso le 2, 4, 6
    • 10.7. False « corked » taints

Bibliography

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