Grape Varieties and Rootstock Varieties

Franco France 66,00 € Franco tous pays 84,00 €
OU
Auteur(s) Pierre Galet
Nb pages 320
Année d'édition 1998
Langue(s) Anglais
Autres versions disponibles Français, Espagnol
Récompenses Non

160

PREFACE

In order to cultivate grapes successfully, whether for direct consumption (table grapes) or for wine and spirit production (wine grapes), it is essential to have a knowledge of grape varieties. A number of grape varieties are now grown throughout the world for the quality of the resulting product, and it is mainly the varieties that have made a name for the great wine producing regions of France that will be studied in this book, together with the principal table grapes cultivated in vineyards throughout the world.
A chapter is dedicated to the study of hybrid direct producers of both French and American origin. These produce grapes and wines of lower quality, but have the advantage of tolerating bad weather (cold winters and heavy rain) and the resulting diseases (e.g. frost damage, downy mildew and rot) that make cultivation of European vine varieties impossible.
In almost all vineyards in the world, vines have to be grafted to control phylloxera, an insect which kills the roots of European vines, and it is therefore necessary to be acquainted with the aptitudes of rootstocks.
The vine-grower should not be content with referring to literature on the cultural and oenological characteristics of the grape varieties he wants to cultivate, but must be able to recognise the vines he has been sold from their appearance so as to avoid any errors in delivery.
This book looks at all these questions. It represents the results of my observations, initially made in the course of monitoring nurseries in France and later while teaching ampelography for over 40 years to future agricultural graduates of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Montpellier. Six editions of my Précis d’Ampélographie Pratique have been published since 1952, and in 1979 an American edition, ‘A Practical Ampelography’, translated by Lucie Morton, was published by Cornell University Press, Ithaca (NY). Some of the grape variety descriptions that follow have been taken from the American edition with the kind permission of Lucie Morton-Garrett, who is still actively involved in viticultural matters and whom I should like to thank most warmly.
This book differs slightly from the last French edition. To make it more international, a few regional French grape varieties of limited interest have been omitted (Abouriou, Bouchalès, Grolleau, Jurançon noir, Merlot blanc, Admirable de Courtiller, Gros Vert, Olivette noire and Perle de Csaba), while certain varieties cultivated in vineyards outside France have been added (Carmenère, Burger/Monbadon, Marsanne, Müller-Thurgau, Roussanne, Sauvignonasse, Savagnin, Viognier, Emperor, Flame Tokay, Perlette and Sultanine/Thompson seedless).
Hybrid direct producers are cultivated less and less in France and are rarely replanted. However, their cultivation remains of interest in northern vineyards, where severe winters kill European vines (for example Canada, north-eastern USA, Russia, Moldavia, Siberia and South Korea), and in tropical vineyards which suffer from heavy summer rain (e.g. Brazil, Madagascar, Reunion, southern India, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and Taiwan).
The chapter covering the definition of the botanical characteristics used to describe each variety is important. From these characteristics, a key can be drawn up to identify vines in the vineyard during the vegetative period. For computer enthusiasts, I should like to point out that an identification diskette is available in English or French, produced in Minneapolis by Professor Bill Smith from the 1979 American edition.
On a final note, I should like to thank Mr Arnould, Director of Revue des Oenologues and Bourgogne Publications for publishing and distributing this English edition. I should also like to thank Jaqueline Smith who has taken on the task of translating it.

Montpellier, 24 April 1998
Pierre GALET
Agricultural Engineer
Docteur ès Sciences

CONTENTS

Preface to the English edition

Chapter 1: Introduction to the study of grape varieties

  • Description methods
  • Classification methods
  • Grape variety names
  • Grape variety synonymy
  • The grape variety and its clones

Chapter 2: Phenotypical classification

  • Ampelographical Definitions
    • Hairiness of vine parts
    • Ampelometric measurements of the leaf
    • Study of flowers and mature grape clusters
  • Description plan
    • The growing tip
    • Young leaves
    • The adult leaf
    • The shoot and cane
    • Inflorescences and flowers
    • Grape clusters and berries
    • Seeds

Chapter 3: The genus Vitis and American species

  • Characteristics of the Vitis genus
    • Vitis section
    • Muscadinia section
  • American species
    • Phenotypical classification key for the principal American species
    • Classification by leaves
    • Classification by canes
    • V. aestivalis Michaux
    • V. Berlandieri Planchon
    • V. candicans Engelmann
    • V. cinerea Engelmann
    • V. cordifolia Michaux
    • V. Labrusca Linnaeus
    • V. monticola Buckley
    • V. riparia Michaux
    • V. rotundifolia Michaux
    • V. rupestris Scheele

Chapter 4: Vinifera wine grape varieties

  • Phenotypical classification of wine grape varieties
  • Classification of wine grape varieties by lateral sinuses and hairiness of leaves
  • Classification by shape of petiolar sinus and lateral sinuses
  • Alicante Bouschet
  • Aligoté
  • Aramon
  • Cabernet franc
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Carignan
  • Carmenère
  • Chardonnay
  • Chenin
  • Cinsaut
  • Clairette
  • Colombard
  • Cot
  • Folle blanche
  • Gamay noir
  • Gamay Teinturiers
  • Gamay de Bouze
  • Gamay de Chaudenay
  • Gamay Fréaux
  • Gewürztraminer
  • Grenache
  • Macabeo
  • Marsanne
  • Mauzac
  • Melon/Muscadet
  • Merlot noir
  • Meunier
  • Monbadon/Burger
  • Mourvèdre
  • Müller-Thurgau
  • Muscadelle
  • Muscat blanc à petits grains
  • Muscat of Alexandria (Muscat d’Alexandrie)
  • Pinot noir
  • Pinot gris
  • Pinot blanc
  • Piquepoul noir
  • Riesling
  • Roussanne
  • Sauvignon
  • Sauvignonasse
  • Savagnin
  • Sémillon
  • Sylvaner
  • Syrah
  • Tannat
  • Terret gris
  • Ugni blanc
  • Valdiguié
  • Viognier

Chapter 5: Vinifera table grape varieties

  • Phenotypical classification key for Vinifera table varieties
  • Classification by depth of lateral sinuses and hairiness of leaves
  • Classification by berries
  • Alphonse Lavallée/Ribier
  • Cardinal
  • Chasselas doré
  • Dattier de Beyrouth
  • Emperor
  • Ahmeur bou Ahmeur/Flame Tokay
  • Italia
  • Muscat Hamburg
  • Muscat Reine des Vignes
  • Perlette
  • Servant
  • Sultanine/Thompson Seedless

Chapter 6: American and French hybrid direct producers

  • Phenotypical classification key for French and American hybrid varieties
  • American hybrid varieties
    • Black Spanish/Jacquez
    • Herbemont
    • Catawba
    • Concord
    • Isabella
    • Delaware
    • Noah
    • Othello
  • French hybrid varieties
    • Baco noir/Baco 1
    • Baco blanc/Baco 22 A
    • Couderc noir/7120 C
    • 13 Couderc
    • Chambourcin/26.205 J Seyve
    • Maréchal Foch/188-2 Kuhlmann
    • Léon Millot/194-2 Kuhlmann
    • Oberlin noir/595 Oberlin
    • Ravat blanc/Ravat 6
    • Vignoles/Ravat 51
    • Rosette/Seibel 1000
    • Rayon d’Or/4986 Seibel
    • Aurore/5279 Seibel
    • Plantet/5455 Seibel
    • Rougeon/5898 Seibel
    • Chancellor/7053 Seibel
    • Colobel/8357 Seibel
    • Seinoir/8745 Seibel
    • Verdelet/9110 Seibel
    • De Chaunac/9549 Seibel
    • Chelois/10.878 Seibel
    • Cascade/13.053 Seibel
    • Seyval/5276 Seyve-Villard
    • Villard blanc/12.375 Seyve-Villard
    • Garonnet/18.283 Seyve-Villard
    • Villard noir/18.315 Seyve-Villard
    • Varousset/23.657 Seyve-Villard
    • Vidal blanc/256 Vidal

Chapter 7: The rootstocks

  • Phenotypical classification key for rootstock varieties
  • Rupestris du Lot
  • Riparia Gloire de Montpellier
  • The Riparia-Rupestris rootstocks
    • 3309 Couderc
    • 101-14 Millardet et de Grasset
    • 44-53 Malègue
    • 196-17 Castel
  • The Berlandieri-Rupestris rootstocks
    • 99 Richter
    • 110 Richter
    • 1103 Paulsen
    • 140 Ruggeri
  • The Riparia-Berlandieri rootstocks
    • 420 A Millardet et de Grasset
    • 161-49 Couderc
    • 5 BB Selection Kober
    • SO 4
    • 5 C Teleki
    • 125 AA
  • The Vinifera-Berlandieri rootstocks
    • 41 B Millardet et de Grasset
    • Fercal
  • The Rootstocks miscellaneous
    • Vialla
    • Aramon-Rupestris Ganzin No. 1
    • 1613 Couderc
    • Dog Ridge
    • Gravesac

Chapter 8: Choosing a rootstock

  • Nature of the soil
    • Phylloxera resistance
    • Nematode resistance
    • Adaptability to chalky soils
    • Soil acidity
    • Salt resistance
    • Drought resistance
    • Adaptability to damp conditions
    • Root rot resistance
    • Mineral deficiencies
  • The vine
    • Graft incompatibility
    • Vigour
    • Vine apoplexy and tylosis

Colour Plates

Bibliography

List of figures

List of colour plates

Index